Drugs Addiction, Alcoholism, and Ayahuasca as Medicine


Potent Jungle Vine Brew Has Potential to Treat Addiction. Researchers say Ayahuasca, found in the Peruvian rainforest, could be used for a variety of ailments. Erika Celeste | Iquitos, Peru 23 March 2010.

Synopsis: Highlights newfound interest in Ayahuasca’s ability to treat alcoholism, drug addiction, and other health problems, as well as the historical use of Ayahuasca to rid us of emotional, mental, and spiritual baggage that lead to addictive behaviors and physical health problems.   



Ayahuasca in the treatment of Addictions. DR. JACQUES MABIT. Physician, founder of Takiwasi Center. Published in the book “Psychedelic Medicine (Vol. 2): New Evidence for Hallucinogenic Substances as Treatments”1 (2007).

Synopsis: An extremely well-written and well-researched paper regarding how and though what methods Ayahuasca medicine could be administered in clinical contexts to help cure addiction.  Also gives in-depth insight into the chemical and neurological reactions induced by Ayahuasca.



Takiwasi: Ayahuasca and Shamanism in Addiction Therapy. Michel Mabit. Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies MAPS -Volume 6 Number 3 Summer 1996.

Synopsis: When the Center for the Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts and for Research of Traditional Medicines was born, the idea of the founders was to investigate and use in a systematic way the Amazonian healers’ shamanistic knowledge and Ayahuasca plant medicine to cure drug addicts. The initial results are encouraging.



Blending Traditions – Using Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge to Treat Drug Addiction. By Jacques Mabit, M.D.

Synopsis: Drawing from his clinical experience with Ayahuasca in the High Peruvian Amazonian forest, the author describes the therapeutic benefits of the wise use of medicinal plants, including non-addictive psychoactive preparations of Ayahuasca tea. He makes the case that within an institutional structure, a therapeutic system combining indigenous practices with contemporary psychotherapy yields highly encouraging results (positive in 2/3 of the patients), and he invites us to reconsider conventional approaches to drug addiction and the role of the individual’s spiritual journey in recovery.



Research on psychedelics moves into the mainstream. The Lancet, Volume 371, Issue 9623, Pages 1491 – 1492, 3 May 2008.

Synopsis: The backlash against the recreational use of psychedelic drugs, such as Ayahuasca, had a negative effect on research into the potential therapeutic benefits of the Amazonian tea and the shamanic ceremonies in which it is administered. But now attitudes are changing and work on Ayahuasca is being revitalized, with several early-stage trials underway.



Psychedelics Could Treat Addiction Says Vancouver Official. By Danielle Egan. Published: August 9, 2006.

Synopsis: Donald MacPherson, Drug Policy Co-ordinator for the city of Vancouver, believes that Ayahuasca and Peyote have benefits for treating a multitude of health and addiction issues facing citizens.  He published a report, which can be read here, in which Ayahuasca’s various benefits brought to the attention of the city’s policy makers.



Ayahuasca: Psychoactive medicinal plants from the Amazonian Rain Forest

Synopsis: A summary of the chemistry and neurological effects of Ayahuasca, and some of the efforts in Europe to give those who need it more access to the medicinal tea.



Peruvian Vine Could Yield Addiction Treatment Meds

Synopsis: This article states that Ayahuasca has long been used in traditional medicinal ceremonies and that it has a powerful effect on the central nervous system. It is used in native ceremonies to induce visions as well as in medications, and researchers say the drink mix produces DMT, a natural brain chemical similar to serotonin that acts as an antidepressant. Charles Grob, a researcher at the UCLA School of Medicine, claims that Ayahuasca and chacruna could be used to treat addictions.



Important new research project about ayahuasca in the USA. Title: ‘Safety and neurochemical effects of Ayahuasca in healthy adults: Phase I and II studies Principle investigator: Leanna Standish, ND, PhD at Bastyr University in Seattle.

Synopsis: This article claims that Ayahuasca is used throughout the U.S. yet its safety has not been studied. The alkaloids contained in Ayahuasca represent a potent, long-acting serotonin that has the potential to treat drug and alcohol abuse, depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Phase I and II studies are needed to develop a standardized and safe botanical form of Ayahuasca medicine that can be used by the general public to treat these infirmities.



Abstract: Halpern, JH. The Use of Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Addiction. Addiction Research, 4(2):177-189, 1996.

Synopsis: This abstract highlights the fact that Ibogane’s and Ayahuasca’s potential efficacy in stopping urges may be tied to their agonism and antagonism at specific serotonin receptor sites. After the administration of Ayahuasca, there is a positive “afterglow” lasting weeks to months which might be extended through repeated dosing.



Full Text: Halpern, JH. The Use of Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Addiction. Addiction Research, 4(2):177-189, 1996.

Synopsis: Full text of the article summarized above



Clinical Trials Indicate Value of Herbal Medicines December 9, 2009. Clinical Trials Indicate Value of Herbal Medicines by Kenneth J. Bender, Pharm.D., M.A. Psychiatric Times ~ December 1998~ Vol. XV ~ Issue 12.

Synopsis: This is the second of two articles regarding herbal medicines as discussed at the American Psychiatric Association’s annual meeting in Toronto. The potential benefits and risks of kava, St. John’s wort and Ayahuasca were considered at the American Psychiatric Association’s symposium on herbal medicine.



Ayahuasca: Sacred Tea from the Amazon. By Jeremiah Creedon, Utne Reader

Synopsis: A skeptical but informative summary of Dennis McKenna’s efforts to encourage scientific research into the benefits and risks of Ayahuasca and other hallucinogens.



Full Text: Hallucinogens: An Update. John H. Halpern, MD.

Synopsis: The current status of clinical research with the hallucinogens is presented, with case vignettes suggesting hallucinogens such as Ayahuasca may have anti-addictive applications. The special circumstances surrounding the religious, nondrug use of hallucinogens as sacred sacraments in the US and elsewhere are also presented. It is hoped that the reader will gain a more nuanced understanding of how these physiologically nonaddictive drugs may offer legitimate benefits in modern society.

Alternative Medicine. Michael Winkelman.

Synopsis: A useful resource and bibliography of texts regarding shamanism, sacred medicinal plants, and their uses.



Full Article: Psilicon Valley. By Jessica Fromm. Metro Santa Cruz, 4/14/10.

Synopsis: An article focusing on internet pioneer John Gilmore’s life-changing experiences with Ayahuasca and other psychedelics, and how imbibing a seemingly minute quantity of hallucinogens can lead to life-altering changes in perspective.  Also describes the various rituals that comprise and Ayahuasca ceremony, and the MAPS sponsored conference that was held to discuss the potential societal and medical implications of expanded access to Ayahuasca and other hallucinogens.



Interview with Yatra da Silveira Barbosa On Ayahuasca, Kundalini and Healing of Drug Addicts.

Synopsis: An informative interview with the founder of the Dutch organization Friends of the Forest, Yatra de Silveira, who drank Ayahuasca and studies Brazilian shamanism for years.  She eventually chose to combine the shamanic teachings she absorbed with meditation techniques in her own healing center.




Ayahuasca vs. Cocaine: Healing Addiction through Deepening the Connection to Self Louise Danielle Palmer. Spirituality and Health. November/December 2004.





Researchers say one of ayahuasca’s most promising uses could be in treating drug and alcohol addiction.




Ayahuasca : Can psychotropic drugs play a role in spiritual recovery from addiction?
Ritualized Use of Amazonian Psychoactive Plants in the Treatment of Addictions: 7 Years of Experience at Takiwasi Center. Dr. Jacques Mabit.ISAM’s International Scientific Conference, Sept. 2001.





The House that Sings: The Therapeutic Use of Icaros at Takiwasi by Susana Bustos.




Alternative and traditional medicine approaches for substance abuse programs: a shamanic perspective. Michael Winkelman. International J of Drug Policy. 2001.




Alternative and traditional medicine approaches for substance abuse programs: a shamanic perspective. Winkelman. Drug Policy. 2001.




“Plant hallucinogens: springboards for psychotherapeutic drug discovery”. D. McKenna. 1996. Abstract.


Anxiety and Ayahuasca


Effects of Ayahuasca on Psychometric Measures of Anxiety, Panic-like and Hopelessness in Santo Daime



Effects of Ingestion of States in Ayahuasca Psychometrics Related to Panic, Anxiety and Depression in States. The Cult of Santo Daime. Rafeail Guimaraes dos Santos. University of Brasilia,Insitute of Psychology, 2006.


Ayahuasca and Mental Health Among the Shuar Monday, Mar 2nd, 2009. Ayahuasca, Indigenous Culture, Research Studies, Sacred Plants.


Clinical Trials Indicate Value of Herbal Medicines  By Kenneth J. Bender, Pharm.D., M.A. | December 1, 1998 . Psychiatric Times. Vol. 15 No. 12.


Hallucinogens, serotonin and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Delgado PL, Moreno FA. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1998 Oct-Dec.


Head over Heels presentation Green Angel, London, 5th June 2004 by Daniel Waterman.


Hallucinogens, serotonin and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Delgado PL, Moreno FA. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1998 Oct-Dec.


Depression and Ayahuasca


Ayahuasca psychedelic tested for depression, by Arron Frood


Ayahuasca, Neurogenesis and Depression. Posted by Daniel Mirante


The Ayahuasca Effect The world’s most powerful antidepressant and psychotherapeutic agent may be a natural herbal tea. By Kirby Surprise Psy.D.


Ayahuasca, Neurogenesis and Depression


The Ayahuasca Effect. Posted by Ayahuasca dot com. By Kirby Surprise Psy.D.


Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges. Dennis J. McKenna. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 102 (2004) 111 – 129.


Hallucinogenic Drugs and Plants in Psychotherapy and Shamanism. Ralph Metzner, Ph.D.


What We Can Learn From Shamanic Healing: Brief Psychotherapy With Latino Immigrant Clients Marlene Dobkin de Rios, PhD. October 2002, Vol 92, No. 10 | American Journal of Public Health 1576-158.


Emotional processing – Psychotherapy and altered states of consciousness: Principles, therapeutic possibilities and challenges. Marianne Kaspersen and Halvard Hårklau.


Effects of Ingestion of States in Ayahuasca Psychometrics Related to Panic, Anxiety and Depression in States. The Cult of Santo Daime. Rafeail Guimaraes dos Santos. University of Brasilia,Insitute of Psychology, 2006.


Ayahuasca: powerful Amazonian hallucinagen may permanently cure depression.

Ayahuasca and Mental Health Among the Shuar Monday, Mar 2nd, 2009. Ayahuasca, Indigenous Culture, Research Studies, Sacred Plants.


Therapeutic caapi tea: a prototype – Material and Method.


Dream drug or demon brew? Amind-altering substance used in shamanistic rituals may hold clues to dreaming and a natural way of alleviating depression but could also trigger schizophrenic hallucinations. Lisa Melton investigates.


MAOI Contraindications. Alfred Savinelli. John H. Halpern, MD.


J Psychoactive Drugs. 2008 Sep;40(3):301-7. Reassessing the cultural and psychopharmacological significance of Banisteriopsis caapi: preparation, classification and use among the Piaroa of Southern Venezuela. Rodd R. Department of Anthropology, Archaeology and Sociology, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.


Ayahuasca Can Cure Depression



Ayahuasca as Antidepressant? Psychedelics and Styles of Reasoning in Psychiatry. Brian Anderson. Anthropology of Consciousness, Volume 23, Issue 1. Spring 2012.

Vine of the Soul: A Phenomenological Study of Ayahuasca and Its Effect Upon Depression. Dissertation. Abstract. Lisa Palladino. Pacifica Graduate Institute.
Vine of the Soul: A Phenomenological Study of Ayahuasca and Its Effect Upon Depression. Dissertation. Complete paper. Lisa Palladino. Pacifica Graduate Institute.
Ayahuasca as Antidepressant? Brian Anderson. Anthroplogy of Consciousness. Volume 23, Issue 1. Spring 2012.

Schizophrenia and Ayahuasca

Ayahuasca and Schizophrenia Sunday, Dec 2nd, 2007 Ayahuasca, Research Studies.


Altered consciousness states and endogenous psychoses: a common molecular pathway? Schizophrenia Research. Volume 28, Issue 2 December 1997.


Ayahuasca-the Healing Vine. Marlene De Rios. Cal State Fullerton.  Int J Soc Psychiatry.1971; 17: 256-269 .



Clinical Trials Indicate Value of Herbal Medicines  By Kenneth J. Bender, Pharm.D., M.A. | December 1, 1998. Psychiatric Times. Vol. 15 No. 12.



The Implications of Psychedelic Drug Research for Integration and Sealing Over as Recovery Styles from Acute Psychosis. John C. Rhead, Ph.D. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, Vol. 10(1) Jan-Mar, 1978.



The Role of Endogenous N,N,-Dimethyltryptamine in Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Nicole J. Patten, Salisbury University.


Mental Health and Ayahuasca

The Power To Heal. April 26th, 2010 by fernando.


Visionary Vine. Hallucinogenic Healing in the Peruvian Amazon.


The Scientific Investigation of Ayahuasca – A Review of Past and Current Research. Dennis J McKenna, PhD — Heffter Research Institute. J C Callaway, PhD — Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Finland. Charles S Grob MD –Heffter Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Harbor/UCLA Medical Center.


Use of South American plants for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Eliana Rodrigues1 and E. A. Carlini2.


Altered States of Consciousness and Psychological After-Effects Induced by the First Time Ritual Use of Ayahuasca in an Urban Context in Brazil. Paulo Cesar et al.


Can psychedelic drugs play a role in palliative care?


Plants and the Central Nervous System. E.A. Carlini. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 2003.


Ayahuasca Healing Journey – Into the Amazon. By: John Gamble.


Ayahuasca Healing Journey – Into the Amazon – Part II. By: John Gamble. This is Part 2 continuing John Gamble’s Ayahuasca Healing Journey – Into the Amazon.


A modern-day shamanistic healer in the Peruvian Amazon: pharmacopoeia and trance.  Dobkin de Rios M.  J Psychoactive Drugs. 1989 Jan-Mar;21(1):91-9.


Human Psychopharmacology of Hoasca: a plant hallucinogen used in ritual context in Brazil. Grob CS, McKenna DJ, Callaway JC, Brito GS, Oberlaender G, Saide OL, Labigalini E, Tacla C, Miranda CT, Strassman RJ, Boone KB. Feb 1996;184(2):86-94. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders.


New Studies of Psychedelics Sunday, Dec 30th, 2007 Research Studies, Sacred Plants.


Effects of ayahuasca on sensory and sensorimotor gating in humans. by J Riba – 2002. Ayahuasca Research – MAPS. HUMAN PHARMACOLOGY OF AYAHUASCA. Therapeutic Potential of Ayahuasca: how it works, an overview of. 10. The Scientific Investigation of Ayahuasca: A Review of Past by DJ McKenna – 1998.


AYAHUASCA VERSUS VIOLENCE – A CASE REPORT EDE FRECSKA National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Budapest, Hungary.


J Psychoactive Drugs. 2009 Sep;41(3):205-12. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects. Barbosa PC, Cazorla IM, Giglio JS, Strassman R. Departamento de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. pcesarr@yahoo.com.br


Ayahuasca in Adolescence: A Preliminary Psychiatric Assessment. Dartiu Xavier Da Silveira, M.D., Ph.D.; Charles S. Grob, M.D.; Marlene Dobkin de Rios, Ph.D.; Enrique Lopez, Psy.D.; Luisa K. Alonso, Ph.D.; et al. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 129 Volume 37 (2), June 2005.


Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-amazonian inebriant. Jordi Riba . Sergio Romero . Eva Grasa . Esther Mena . Ignasi Carrió . Manel J. Barbanoj. Psychopharmacology (2006) 186: 93–98.


Platelet serotonin uptake sites increased in drinkers of ayahuasca. James C Callaway 1,2., Mauno M Airaksinen l, Dennis J McKenna 3, Glacus S Brito 4, Charles S Grob 5. Psychopharmacology (1994) 116:385-387.


J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Apr 21;128(3):662-71. Epub 2010 Feb 26. Composition, standardization and chemical profiling of Banisteriopsis caapi, a plant for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders relevant to Parkinson’s disease. Wang YH, Samoylenko V, Tekwani BL, Khan IA, Miller LS, Chaurasiya ND, Rahman MM, Tripathi LM, Khan SI, Joshi VC, Wigger FT, Muhammad I. National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.


Psychointegrators: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Therapeutic Effects of n Hallucinogens Michael Winkelman Complementary Health Practice Review 2001; 6; 219.


Neips Site Publishes Phd Thesis on Ayahuasca therapy.


Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments An Entheogen Chrestomathy. Thomas B. Roberts, Ph.D. and Paula Jo Hruby, Ed.D. Heffter Review of Psychedelic Research. (1998). Vol. 1. Santa Fe NM: The Heffter Research Institute.


Psychedelic Healing? ( Preview ). Hallucinogenic drugs, which blew minds in the 1960s, soon may be used to treat mental ailments By David Jay Brown .



Update from the UK and an Interview with Pioneering Psychedelic Psychiatrist Dr. Ronald Sandison. Ben Sessa, Ph.D. MAPS Volume xviii Number 3 Winter 2008~09.



Can psychedelics have a role in psychiatry once again? Ben Sessa. British J Psychiatry 2005.



Sage Journals Online. References to Ayahuasca.



Emotional processing – Psychotherapy and altered states of consciousness: Principles, therapeutic possibilities and challenges. Marianne Kaspersen and Halvard Hårklau. 2008.



Hallucinogenic Drugs and Plants in Psychotherapy and ShamanismRalph Metzner, Ph.D. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Volume 30 (4), October – December 1998.



Pharmacology of Ayahuasca.



Psychological Aspects of the Yage Experience in an Experimental Setting. Claudio Naranjo.


A Brief Psychological Exploration of Amazonian Shamanism



Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. Johns Hopkins University. WA Richards, RR Griffiths. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2008.



MAOI Contraindications. Alfred Savinelli, John H. Halpern, MD. MAPS Volume 6 Number 1 Autumn 1995 p. 58.


Sociopsychotherapeutic Functions of Ayahuasca Healing in Amazonia by Walter Andritzky PhD



Images of Healing: Spontaneous Mental Imagery and Healing Process of the Barquinha, A Brazilian Ayahuasca Religious System. Marcelo Mercante. A Dissertation. 2006.



Religions of the Twice-Born: Northwest Amazonian Ayahuasca Shamanism and Near-Death Experience. Marcus Lumby. MAPS Volume 8 Number 3 Autumn 1998 pp. 16-17.



‘The Realm of Visions’ Towards an Evaluation of the Role of Near-Death Experience in Ayahuasca Psychotherapies. University of Cambridge. Peruvian Northwest Amazonia Fieldwork Report 1. Marcus C.Y. Lumby. 1998.



‘The Realm of Visions’: Towards an Evaluation of the Role of Near-Death Experience in Ayahuasca Psychotherapies. University of Cambridge. Peruvian Northwest Amazonia. Fieldwork Report 2. Marcus C.Y. Lumby. 1998.



EEG Correlates of the Ayahuasca Shamanic Journey Experience. Frank Echenhofer, PhD. California Institute of Integral Studies.



Ayahuasca Shamanic Visions: Integrating EEG Research, Psychotherapy, and Mystical Perspectives. Frank Echenhofer, Ph.D.



A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects. Barbosa, Cazorla, Giglio, Strassman. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2009 Sep;41(3):205-12.



Ayahuasca: New Brain New World.



Ayahuasca: Altered States of Consciousness.



Altered States of Consciousness and Short-Term Psychological After Effects Induced by the First Time Ritual Use of Ayahuasca in an Urban Context in Brazil. Barbosa, Giglio and Dalgafarrondo. J of Psychoactive Drugs Volume 37 June 2005.



Ayahuasca: Evolving and Rewiring Your Brain and Ayahuasca: Uniting Both Sides of Brain and Our Visionary Abilities.



EEG Changes with Ayahuasca.



Psychedelic, Psychoactive and Addictive Drugs and States of Consciousness. Ralph Metzner, Ph.D. California Institute of Integral Studies.



Effects of the South American Psychoactive Beverage Ayahuasca on Regional Brain Electrical Activity in Humans. Riba, Andererb,Janea, Saletub, Barbanoja. Pharmacopsychiatry.



Effects os a Psychedelic Tropical Tea, Ayahuasca, on the EEG Activity of the Human Brain During a Shamanistic Ritual. Erik Hoffmann.



Shamanism as Neurotheology and Evolutionary Psychology. Michael Winkelman. Arizona State University.



The Healing Potential of Non-Ordinary States of Consciousness. Walter Mead interviewing Stan Grof.



Hallucinogenic Music: An Analysis of the Role of Whistling in Peruvian Ayahuasca Healing Sessions. Fred Katz and Marlene Dobkin de Rios.



Some Relationships between Music and Hallucinogenic Ritual: The “Jungle Gym” in Consciousness. Marlene Dobkin de Rios and Fred Katz.



EEG Gamma Coherence and Other Correlates of Subjective Reports During Ayahuasca Experiences. Stuckey, Lawson, Luna. J of Psychoactive Drugs. June 2005.



Plants indicated by Brazilian Indians to Central Nervous System disturbances: A bibliographical approach. Rodrigues, Mendes, Negri. 2006.



EEG Correlates of the Ayahuasca Shamanic Journey Experience. Frank Echenhofer. California Institute of Integral Studies.



Exploring Personality, Phenomenological, and EEG Correlates of the Ayahuasca Journey Experience to Facilitate an Individual’s Spiritual Development. Echenhofer, Wynia, Luna, Gunkelman & Whitehouse. 2004.



Neurofeedback, Growth, and Habit. Stoller. 2010.


General Health and Ayahuasca


Do entheogen-induced mystical experiences boost the immune system? Psychedelics, peak experiences, and wellness. Thomas B. Roberts.



Dimethyltryptamine and other hallucinogenic tryptamines exhibit substrate behavior at the serotonin uptake transporter and the vesicle monoamine transporter. Cozzi, Gopalakrishnan, Anderson, Feih, Shulgin, Daley, Ruoho. J Neural Transm (2009) 116:1591-1599.



Effects of ayahuasca on binocular rivalry with dichoptic stimulus alternation. Frecska, White, Luna. Psychopharmacology (2004) 173:79-87.



Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (2001) 154:85-95. Riba, Rodríguez-Fornells, Urbano, Morte, Antonijoan, Montero, Callaway, Barbanoj.



Therapeutic Potential of Ayahuasca: how it works, an overview of an extraordinary holistic medicine. Blanco, La Selva. Iquitos, Perú.



Psychedelic Horizons. Positive emotional experiences boost the immune system. Psychedelic peak experiences are exceedingly emotionally positive. Do they boost the immune system?



Psychointegration: The Physiological Effects of Entheogens. Michael Winkelman.



Ayahuasca: Hallucinogens, Consciousness, and the Spirit of Nature. Metzner, Ralph. 1999. Thunder’s Mouth Press.



DMT: The Spirit Molecule: A Doctor’s Revolutionary Research into the Biology of Near-Death and Mystical Experiences. Strassman 2001. Park Street Press.



Benny Shanon.Entheogens Reflections on ‘Psychoactive Sacramentals.



Changes in Spirituality Among Ayahuasca Ceremony Novice Participants. Trichter, Klimo, Krippner.



Neurofeedback and Ayahuasca: A More Effective Program for Personal Growth. Stoller, May 2008.



“My Father and My Mother, Show Me Your Beauty”: Ritual Use of Ayahuasca in Rio de Janeiro.Tania Soibelman. Masters Thesis.  The California Institute of Integral Studies. Fall 1995.



Ayahuasca and Spiritual Crisis: Liminality as Space for Personal Growth. Sara E. Lewis. Columbia University. Anthropology of Consciousness, Vol. 19. 2008.



Identifying Spiritual Content in Reports from Ayahuasca Sessions. Krippner and Sulla. 2000.



The Objectivity of Spiritual Experiences: Spontaneous Mental Imagery and the Spiritual Space. Marcelo S. Mercante. NEIP – Interdisciplinary Group for Psychoactive Studies.



Neuropharmacology of the Mystical State Entheogenic tradition and the mystical experience. Christopher Altman. Pierre Laclede Honors College.



Entheogenic Mysticism: A Jamesian Assessment. G.William Barnard.



Entheogens: Return of the Ostracized (mysticism). Roberts and Hruby. Northern Illinois University. 1996.



From Agony to Ecstacy: The Transformative Spirit of Yajé. By Jimmy Weiskopf. Shaman’s Drum. Fall, 1995.


Interview with Steve Beyer on “A Guide to Mastizo Shamanism in the Upper Amazon”.



Ayahuasca, Religion and Nature. Morgan Brent.



Spirit Vine. by Daniel Mirante. Transpersonal States of Consciousness : Illusion or Spirit?



The Epistemics of Ayahuasca Visions. Benny Shanon. Springer Science. 2010.



The Psychotherapeutic Employment of Sacred Plants. Silvia Polivoy.



Entangled, by Graham Hancock. Background briefing notes on Ayahuasca. Note 2: Health and Healing with Ayahuasca. (Click on Part 8.)



Ayahuasca – The Divine Wine. Mark Sircus. International Medical Veritas Association.






Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs. Erowid books on line.



Ayahuasca Analogues and Plant Based Tryptamines. The Best of The Entheogen Review 1992-1999. Erowid books on line.



The Entheogen Review. A sample copy.



Tryptamine Hallucinogens and Consciousness. Terence McKenna.



Ayahuasca: The University of Gaia (Shamanism). Ralph Miller.



Ayahuasca: Nature’s Teacher (Shamanism). Ralph Miller.



Psychedelic Shamanism: Shamanist Sacred Plants To Experience the 5th Dimension.



Ayahuasca: An Ethnopharmacologic History. Dennis J. McKenna, Ph.D. 1998.



True Conversations: An Interview with Dennis McKenna.



Ayahuasca & Visionary Plants – Companions to the Soul. Howard G Charing.



The Re-Unification Of The Sacred And The Natural. Ralph Metzner, Ph.D. Eleusis, No. 8, August 1997.



Shamanism, Alchemy and Yoga: Traditional Technologies of Tranformation. Ralph Metzner, Ph.D.



Varieties of Ritual Involving States of Consciousness. Ralph Metzner, Ph.D. (2006). Altered States of Consciousness.



Shamanism in the Age of Reason : Chapter 03. Physical Shamanism and Shamanic Therapy. James Kent.



Molecular Mysticism: The Role of Psychoactive Substances in the Transformation of Consciousness. Ralph Metzner. 1989.


Molecular Mysticism: The Role of Psychoactive Substances in Shamanic Transformations of Consciousness. Ralph Metzner. Shaman’s Drum. Spring 1988.



Hallucinogenic Ritual and Theater. Marlene Dobkin de Rios.



The Ecstatic Imagination: Psychedelic Experiences and the Psychoanalysis of Self-Actualization. Dan Merkur. 1988



Effects of the Amazonian Psychoactive BeverageAyahuasca on Binocular Rivalry: Interhemispheric Switching or Interhemispheric Fusion? Frecska, White, & Luna.



Shamanism and Priesthood in the Light of the Campa Ayahuasca Ceremony. Gerald Weiss.


Climbing the Vine of Souls: Ayahuasca, shamanism, and curanderismo in the Andes. Steve Mizrach.



Buddhism, entheogens & shamanism the search for common ground. Daniel Waterman. 2005



Shamanism and indigenous youthhood in the Brazilian Amazon. Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen.



Shamanism, Entheogens and Nonduality. Frank Echenhofer, Spontaneous waking lucidity during the ayahuasca shamanic journey. California Institute of Integral Studies.



In search of the authentic self: using plants of wisdom as healers Journal of Heart Centered Therapies, Autumn, 2003. Edwin Lainhart.



Sacred Evolution with Amazonian Plant Spirit Medicine Ayahuasca.


The Alchemy of Sound: Mantra of Tibet and Shamanic Icaro of the Amazon.


The healing power of the icaros: A phenomenological study of ayahuasca experiences. Bustos. California Institute of Integral Studies, 2008, Abstract.


Podcast 164 – McKenna: “Some thoughts about ayahuasca”. Terence McKenna.



Video November 22, 2008 – Terence McKenna on Ayahuasca and other shamanic plants.



Video April 27, 2009 – Ayahuasca Dreams & Shamanism – Terence McKenna: The Last Word.



Healing Traditions of the Peruvian Amazon: Ayahuasca Shamanism in Iquitos, Peru. N. Mason Cummings.



Ayahuasca: the journey to the origins of culture by Christian Rätsch.

Roles of Songs used by Traditional Healers in the Peruvian Amazon. Mag Bernd Brabec.



Ayahuasca: Communion with the Infinite. The Visual Music of the Shipibo tribe of the Amazon. Howard G. Charing.



An Ethnobotanical Perspective on Ayahuasca. Richard Evans Schultes, Ph.D.



Ayahuasca as Vermifuge.



The Ritual and Religious Use of Ayahuasca in Contemporary Brazil. Edward Macrae, Ph.D.



Tryptamines, Beta-carbolines and You. J.C. Callaway. MAPS – Volume 4 Number 2.



Ayahuasca, Yage and Harmaline. Peter Stafford.



Common Themes in South American Indian Yage Experiences’. Michael J. Harner.



Ayahuasca Variations. William L. Benzon.



Vine of the Souls A Closer Look at Amazonia’s Visionary Medicine. Charlie Kidder.



An Ethnobotanical Perspective on Ayahuasca. Richard Schultes, Ph.D.



Behavioral profile of constituents in ayahuasca, an Amazonian psychoactive plant mixture. Freedland. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1999.



Fast and Slow Metabolizers of Hoasca. Callaway. J of Psychoactive Drugs. June 2005.



Human Pharmacology of Ayahuasca: Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Monoamine Metabolite Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics. Riba, Valle, Urbano, Yritia, Morte, Barbanoj. J of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2003.



The Healing Practices of a Peruvian Shaman. Luna. J of Ethnopharacology. 1984.Pharmahuasca, Anahuasca and Vinho da Jurema: Human Pharmacology of Oral DMT plus Harmine. Ott. 1997.



New hallucinogenic in Europe: Ayahuasca or the Vine of the Spirit. Pepin, Cheze, Billault, Gaillard. J of Forensic Medicine. 2000.



The Healing Power of the Curanderos’ Songs or “Icaros”: A Phenomenological Study. Dissertation Proposal. Bustos. 2004.



Ayahuasca Healing Beyond the Amazon: The Globalization of a Traditional Indigenous Entheogenic Practice. Tupper. Global Networks: A J of Transnational Affairs. 2009.



The Globalization of Ayahuasca: Harm Reduction or Benefit Maximization? Tupper. International J of Drug Policy. 2008



Are Psychedelics Useful in the Practice of Buddhism? By Stolaroff. J of Humanistic Psychology. Winter 1999.



The Visionary World of Ayahuasca-Plant Spirit Shamanism in the Amazon.



The Role of Music in Healing with Hallucinogens: Tribal and Western Studies. Dobkin de Rios. Music Therapy. June 2003.



The Healing Power of the Curanderos’ Songs or “Icaros”: A Phenomenological Study. Bustos. Dissertation proposal. 2004.



Myth, Cosmos, and Ceremony among the Shipibo.



Songs of the Shipibo of the Upper Amazon. Thoedore Lucas. 1973.



The ritual use of ayahuasca by three Brazilian religions. Edward MacRae. 2004.



Problems in ethnomedicine: evaluating traditional knowledge and transferring it outside its native context. Laurent Rivier. 2003.



Shamanism and indigenous youthhood in the Brazilian Amazon. Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen. 2009.



Hallucinogenic plant use and related indigenous belief systems in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Naranjo P. J Ethnopharmacol. 1979. Abstract.


Ritual and medicinal plants of the Ese’ejas of the Amazonian rainforest. Desmarchelier. Ritual and medicinal plants of the Ese’ejas of the Amazonian rainforest. J Ethnopharmacology. 1996.



Medicinal and Useful Plants of the Upper Amazon. 2006.



Medicine for the Soul. Howard Charing. Sacred Hoop. 2003.


Ayahuasca Sacred Chants – The Icaros. Charing and Cloudsley.



Ayahuasca: Interview with Shaman and Peruvian Mystic – Alonso del Rio. Charing and Cloudsley.



Shipibo Ayahuasca Shaman, Benjamin Ochavano, Interviewed. by Charing and Cloudsley.



The Master and his Disciples Platas Amazonas healers. Jean-Pierra Chaumeil.



“Ayahuasca,” the South American Hallucinogenic Drink: an Ethnobotanical and Chemical Investigation. Rivier and Lindgren.



Reflections on Ayahuasca from a Therapeutic Perspective. Mabit, Campos and Arce.



Trance and Shamanic Cure on the South American Continent: Psychopharmacological and Neurobiological Interpretations. Francois Blanc. Anthropology of Consciousness. 2010.



Numinous Shamanism: Terence McKenna’s Tryptamine Mystery (Plant Sacraments Part II). Luminous. 2010.



The Visionary World of Ayahuasca – Plant Spirit Shamanism in the Amazon.


Altered States and the Study of Consciousness – The Case of Ayahuasca. Benny Shanon. J of Mind and Behavior Spring 2003.



Biblical Entheogens: a Speculative Hypothesis. Benny Shanon.



Psychointegrator Plants: Their Roles in Human Culture, Consciousness and Health. Michael Winkelman. 1995.



Sound – Trance – Healing – The sound and pattern medicine of the Shipibo in the Amazon lowlands of Peru. Sabine Rittner. Music Therapy Today. July 2007.



Facing Fear: A Conversation with an Ayahuasquero.



Ayahuasca: Shamanism Shared Across Cultures. Luna. 2003.



Jacques Mabit- Ayahuasca, Shamanism and Foreigners. Video.



The vidente phenomenon in third world traditional healing: an Amazonian example.Dobkin de Rios. Abstract. Med Anthropol. 1984. Winter.



A modern-day shamanistic healer in the Peruvian Amazon: pharmacopoeia and trance.Dobkin de Rios. Abstract. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1989.



Hallucinogenic plant use and related indigenous belief systems in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Naranjo. Abstract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1979 Apr.



Ayahuasca & It’s Mechanisms of Healing Taken from: Visionary Vine: Hallucinogenic healing in the Peruvian Amazon. Dobkin de Rios. 1972.



Gnostic Media Podcast #027 – Ayahuasca – Interview w Prof. Em. Marlene Dobkin de Rios. 2009.



Psychospiritual integration of an ayahuasca retreat experience. Deborah Quevedo. 2009. Abstract.



Jaguar Medicine. Alberto Villoldo. 2008.



Video. Jonathan Ott talks about Ayahuasca at the World Psychedelic Forum.



2001 International Conference on Altered States Luis Eduardo Luna The Ayahuasca in a Non Shamanic, Non Religious Setting. Video.



2001 International Conference on Altered States Stanley Krippner Spiritual Dimensions of the Ayahuasca Experience part 2. Video.



Working with “La Medicina”: Elements of Healing in Contemporary Ayahuasca Rituals. Evgenia Fotiou. Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 23, Issue 1. Spring 2012.Ayahuasca, Salutogenisis and the Need for Ecological Approaches. Franz Friczewski. NEIP Info.
Healing with Plant Intelligence: A Report from Ayahuasca. Richard Doyle. Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 23, Issue 1. Spring 2012.
Person, Place and Sacrament: Cross-Cultural Healing and Transformation in the Ayahuasca. Shamanism of Iquitos, Peru. J. Taylor. NEIP Info. 2011.
Ayahuasca Characterization, Mwtabolism in Humans, and Relevance to Endogenous N, N-Dimethyltryptaimines. Ethan McIlhenny. Dissertation.  August 2012.
Shredding the Layers: How Ayahuasca Saved More Than My Skin. Book. Mark Flaherty. 2012.
‘Pudding-Like’ Identity of Our Times. Yage Ritual. Andrzej Pankalla.
A Longitudinal History of Self-Transformation: Psychedelics, Spirituality, Activism and Transformation. Phil Wolfson. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research. Volume 2, No. 7. 2011.
Psychedelics, Spirituality, and Transformation. Phil Wolfson. Tikkun. Volume 26, Issue 1. 2011.
Voice of the Psychonauts: Coping, Life Purpose, and Spirituality in Psychedelic Drug Users. Moro et al. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Volume 43, Issue 3. 2011.
Singing to the Plants: A Guide to Mestizo Shamanism in the Upper Amazon. Stephan Beyer.
Exploring the Edge Realms of Consciousness: Liminal Zones, Psychic Science and the Hidden Dimensions of the Mind. Edited by Pinchbeck and Jordan. Evolver Editions. 2012.
Ayayhuasca Shamanic Visions: Integrating Neuroscience, Psychotherapy, and Spiritual Perspectives. Frank Echenhofer. Chapter 5 in:  A Field Guide to a New Meta-fields: Bridging the Humanities-Neurosciences Divide. Edited byBarbara Stafford. University of Chicago Press. 2011.
Ayahuasca Track and Workshop MAPS 2013 Psychedelic Science Conference Oakland, CA.